Volume 8, Issue 36 (2021)                   CFL 2021, 8(36): 281-311 | Back to browse issues page

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karimi R, Rezayi H, Doroudgarian F. Nostalgia in Barzegari (scything) Poems: A Genre of Bakhtiary Poetry. CFL. 2021; 8 (36) :281-311
URL: http://cfl.modares.ac.ir/article-11-39156-en.html
1- student , rohalla_karimi@yahoo.com
2- master
Abstract:   (501 Views)
From the view point of typology, Bakhtiary poetry is enriched with a wide variety of poems. Several genres and categories of Bakhtiary poetry are "Saru","Dowalali","Sayyadi" (hunting),"Shouxi", "Balal", and "Barzegari" (scything). Barzegari which is known by terms such as Boveru, Baveru, Bidad, and Barzeyri, narrates gloominess, nostalgia, love, grief, expectations, and concerns of croppers who were busy scything and harvesting their crops far from their family and tribe, in a hot weather region called Garmesir in spring. They expressed their feelings and emotions through poems or songs. One of the main themes of these poets was the sowerchr('39')s sense of nostalgia away from family. This study aims to investigate the factors and several aspects of nostalgia in Barzegari genre of Bakhtiary poetry. This nostalgia is divided into manchr('39')s and womanchr('39')s categories. From the prominent aspects of manchr('39')s nostalgia of Barzegary poetry, homesickness for the hometown, reminiscence of reaching the beloved, feeling nostalgia for the tents and the coolness of springs in Sardsir, the grief for the nature in general, and Sardsir plants in particular, and finally the grief of homelessness and loneliness could be identified.  The womenchr('39')s nostalgia depicts their mental states such as separation and waiting for the lover.
Review of Literature
No independent study has been conducted to investigate, analyze, and identify the type of farming (or scything) in Bakhtiary popular literature so far. Some related studies have only collected some of the verses of this genre, without analysis and explanation. Ahmad Abdollahi Mogoei) 1994) in Book of Songs and Proverbs by Bakhtiary, Vahman and Asatrian (1995) in the book of Poetry of the Baxtiārīs, Hosseini (1998) in the book of Bakhtiari folk poems and songs, Kazem pour (2002) in Bakhtiari Music and Songs, Hossein Hassanzadeh Rahdar (2004) in From Bakhtiari to Bakhtiari, Hajatpour (2009) in the book Bakhtiari and the Evolution of Time, Ghanbari Odivi (2012) in ​​the books of Folklore of Bakhtiari People, Davoodi Hamouleh (2018) in the  Bakhtiari Folk Music, Zhukovsky (2017) in the book Materials for the Study of Bakhtiary Dialect has recorded a number of verses of Barzegary (scything).
Objectives, questions, and assumptions
Nostalgia is known as one of the most prominent themes of Barzegarychr('39')s poetry, which expresses the relationship between human and nature. It is the main factor of permanence, charm, and the impact of this type of poetry in Bakhtiary culture. The aim of this study is to investigate and analyze the nostalgia cases in Barzegary poems; therefore, in this article, the following research questions are pursued:
1. What factors have caused nostalgia in Barzegarychr('39')s poems?
2. Has gender been influential in nostalgia?
3. Were the elements of nature effective in creating nostalgia?
Discussion
In Bakhtiary culture, there are different types of folk poetry, such as cypress (mourning), Bilal (romantic), Dualali (womenchr('39')s joys), farming, fishing and so on. Some of these important types are "Bureau", "Bidad", "Barzegari" and "Barzieri". The most common and famous name of this species is Barzegari (scything). From past until now, Bakhtiary people have been engaged in agriculture along with animal husbandry. Planting, holding, and harvesting crops each have issues, problems, and poems. Among these, harvesting, especially harvesting in the tropical areas (Khuzestan), has led to particular problems and issues.
Difficulty and the complexity of reaping in the tropical areas has led to the creation of a genre of folk poetry that is the subtlest, saddest, and poignant genre of Bakhtiary folk poetry. "This type of poetry is one of the highest Bakhtiary folk songs. Genuineness, creativity and art is highly manifested in it"(Ghanbari Odivi, 2012, p. 63)
This type of poetry covers various issues, for example, work and its hardships, reaping at night, the unbearable heat of the day, lack of cold water, the influx of pests while sleeping, loneliness, and sadness, the love for the beloved and the nostalgia for her, chagrining while migration, anguish for women, nostalgia for different cold places, gloominess for cold fragrant plants, nostalgia for the domestic animals, nostalgia for wife and children, and haste to escape from Barzegari (Scything).
One of the main and important themes of this type of poetry is grief and nostalgia. Due to the deep nostalgic state of this genre, these Barzegari poems can be called "nostalgia poems". By analyzing these poems, we can understand the wishes, problems, feelings, and affections of Bakhtiary harvesters in the past. Nostalgia is a term from the field of psychology that has entered literature. "Nostalgia is one of the terms of psychology and means desolation for the homeland or home and family, grief for hometown, grief for the past, and the desire to return to it" (Nazari and Shahedi, 2016, p. 240). After psychology and psychiatry, nostalgia became central in literature and art. Although nostalgia is a medical term and a common discussion in psychological criticism, it has been the subject of literary works for centuries.
The nostalgic mood is seen in most of the Barzegarichr('39') verses. Nostalgia in Barzegari poems can be divided into male and female nostalgia according to their narrator.
Conclusion
Bakhtiary folk poetry is one of the most diverse and frequent folk poems in Iran from a typological point of view. Besides, Barzegari genre is considered as one of the most prominent types of Bakhtiary folk poetry due to the high frequency of its poems and its romantic and sad content, which has attracted attention more than other types. Especially since this type narrates the separation and isolation of Barzegar from his beloved, the cool and pleasant region and his hometown, thus, singing the verses creates a kind of empathy between the audience and Barzegar (sower). Due to the distance from the beloved and the pleasant cold climates, the farmers always remember these two (the beloved and the cool region, i.e. Sardsir) with regret, sorrow, and nostalgia. The contrast of the favorable cold climate (Chaharmahal –va- Bakhtiary) with the scorching heat of the tropical areas (Khuzestan) in the middle of spring and the days of reaping and harvest intensifies the feeling of nostalgia, grief, and regret. Hence, nostalgia is considered as the dominant element in the content of this genre. Barzegarchr('39')s nostalgia for the beloved, sadness of homesickness, longing for the past, longing for the days of reunion and the desire to return to the cold region (Sard-e-sir) are the main themes that are observed repetitively. Nostalgia in Barzegari poem is divided into two categories: nostalgia for men and nostalgia for women.
References
Abdollahi Mogoei, A. (1994). Ballad and proverb Bakhtiari (in Farsi). Markaze Pazhohesh and Honar.
Davoodi Hamouleh, S. (2018). Bakhtiari folk music: sounds - songs of happiness and unhappiness (in Farsi).  Afraz.
Ghanbari Adivi, A. (2012). Folklore of Bakhtiari people (in Farsi) Newshe.
Hajatpur, M. (2009). Bakhtiari and change time. Motabar
Hassanzadeh Rahdar, H. (2004). From Bakhtiari to Bakhtiari (in Farsi).  Lajevardi.
Hosseini, B. (1998). Bakhtiari folk poems and songs, including descriptions of wars and epics (in Farsi). Shahsavari
Kolahchian, F. (2007). Nostalgia for the past in classical mystical poetry. PhD Thesis, Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran.
Nazari, N., & Shahedi, M. (2016). A study of nostalgia in Hafezchr('39')s poetry. Mystical and Mythological Literature, 44, 265 -239.
Pure, K. (2002) Bakhtiari music and songs. Anzan
Vahman, F., & Asatrian, G. (1995). Poetry of the baxtiārīs: love poems, wedding songs, lullabies, laments. Munksgaard Eport and Subscription.
Zhukovsky, Y. A. (2017). Materials for the study of Bakhtiari dialect (in Farsi). Allameh Tabatabai University Press
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Article Type: پژوهشی اصیل | Subject: Public literature of Lori and Bakhtiari
Received: 2019/12/20 | Accepted: 2020/10/16 | Published: 2021/01/29

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